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Question(s) / Instruction(s):

1. J.S. Mill “Liberty” (1859)

1). what is society justified in restricting liberty?

2). what conditions must be satisfied before Mill would describe a society as truly free?

3). How might Mill respond to the arguments of reformers who demand state intervention in the economy and society?

4). How does Mill distinguish between the sort of liberty that is allowable and the sort that is not?

5). Mill saw his vision of freedom as beneficial, but others criticized it as unrealistic and even inhumane. Why?

2. Pierre Proudhon “What is property?” (1840)

1). Why does Proudhon maintain that property is theft?

2). what is the author’s solution for the problems of his age?

3). Politics, Proudhon argues, is a science, not an art. What does he mean?

4). what will anarchy bring to society? What will this new society look like?

5). what is Proudhon trying to do in his work? Is he offering a practical blueprint for society?

3. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels “The Communist manifesto” (1848)

1). In the Marxist view, what has been the course of history? What was the state of politics when the Manifesto was composed?

2). what is the Communist Party’s relation to the working class?

3). what is the Party’s goal? How will this end be achieved?

4). Marx and Engels scoffed t those who denounced communism, as inimical to freedom. Why? What is freedom, according to the Manifesto?

5). Why would the nation-state disappear under the communism?

4. Pope Leo XIII “Rerum Novarum (The Condition of Labor)” (1891)

1). what is the condition of the working class, according to Leo?

2). Why is private property important?

3). what is Leo’s view of socialism? Does he believe that it will work? Why or why not?

4). what are the responsibilities of employers and the rich towards their workers?

5). what is Leo’s solution for the ills of society?

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